Features of development of the human capital in Georgia

Tamari Beridze, Natalia Tchanturia, Guguli Kurashvili

Abstract


Features of development of the human capital in Georgia

Tamari Beridzea, Natalia Tchanturiab, Guguli Kurashvilic

a Georgian Technical University, 77, Kostava Str., 0175, Tbilisi, Georgia

b Georgian Technical University, 77, Kostava Str., 0175, Tbilisi, Georgia

c Georgian Technical University, 77, Kostava Str., 0175, Tbilisi, Georgia

Purpose. Modern conditions of globalization of world economy, informatization of productions paid again attention of economists to internal abilities of the person – an education level, abilities to creativity, a state of health, the general culture and moral. For this reason in recent years the increasing relevance is gained by researches in the field of the human capital.

In the modern world the human capital becomes a source of vital force and development of an enterprise and society as a whole.  Human capital, instead of the equipment and production stocks, is defining factor of increase of competitiveness of the enterprise, economic growth and efficiency of economy.

Methodology. Economic development depends on natural resources, but physical resources and especially the founder of all the person are most important. The national wealth of the country consists of natural resources, physical resources and human resources. Especially for the small countries feature of the human capital is its ability to create the benefits without participation of the natural and material capital. Such benefits is first of all the new knowledge necessary for human development.

The human capital is formed at the expense of investments into increase of level and quality of life of the population, in intellectual activity.  Including —  education, health, knowledge (science), enterprise ability in information support of work, safety of citizens and business and economic freedom, and also  culture, art and other components. The major factor which influences formation quantitative and qualitative parameters of the human capital of Georgia, the high level of legal and illegal labor immigration is threateningly.   It should be noted that leakage of intellectual and simply efficient population, is a painful and unsoluble problem not only Georgia, but also the majority of the states of the former Soviet Union.

Results. Since the end of the twentieth century in economic science the idea dominates more and more that a key factor for economic development of the country is - the human capital, which share in factors of development of the country of 60-70%, and in some developed countries (Japan, Germany, South Korea) 75% of total. Other data: Natural resources, geopolitical situation, Climatic conditions, Silk way, Oil, etc. Only 30-35%. For example, by estimates of the World bank, in the USA the national wealth occupies physical resources (buildings, cars) - 19%; natural resources - 5% and the human capital - 76%. In Western Europe, corresponding indexes of 23%; 2% and 74%. In developing countries, importance of a human factor decreases.

Not less important, preservation of the investments enclosed in the human capital, for the country, by reduction of leakage of an intellectual resource creation of adequately paid workplaces.

The theoretical contribution. Most fully the human capital can be characterized as follows: it is congenital, created as a result of investments and accumulation a certain education level, skills, abilities, motivations, energy, cultural development as the specific individual, group of people, and societies as a whole which are expediently used in this or that sphere of public reproduction, promote economic growth and influence the size of the income of their owner. Development of the human capital in many respects depends on activization of such directions of a state policy, as improvement of education systems, increase of the income of the population, improvement of solvent demand in the country, optimization of migration policy, improvement of social and economic infrastructure, development of social partnership and enterprise initiatives, support of development of civil society.

Keywords: human capital, productive work, quality of life.

Paper type: Theoretical article.

 


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